Annotated docs/gpl-3.0.txt

2011-02-22 Paul Boddie Added an example configuration that would lead to limited hosting in a particular directory, requiring .htaccess and mod_rewrite tricks.
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                    GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
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                       Version 3, 29 June 2007
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 Copyright (C) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. <>
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 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
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 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
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  The GNU General Public License is a free, copyleft license for
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software and other kinds of works.
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  The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed
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to take away your freedom to share and change the works.  By contrast,
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the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to
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share and change all versions of a program--to make sure it remains free
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software for all its users.  We, the Free Software Foundation, use the
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GNU General Public License for most of our software; it applies also to
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any other work released this way by its authors.  You can apply it to
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your programs, too.
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  When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
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price.  Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
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have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
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them if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you
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want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new
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free programs, and that you know you can do these things.
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  To protect your rights, we need to prevent others from denying you
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these rights or asking you to surrender the rights.  Therefore, you have
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certain responsibilities if you distribute copies of the software, or if
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you modify it: responsibilities to respect the freedom of others.
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  For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
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gratis or for a fee, you must pass on to the recipients the same
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freedoms that you received.  You must make sure that they, too, receive
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or can get the source code.  And you must show them these terms so they
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know their rights.
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  Developers that use the GNU GPL protect your rights with two steps:
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(1) assert copyright on the software, and (2) offer you this License
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giving you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify it.
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  For the developers' and authors' protection, the GPL clearly explains
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that there is no warranty for this free software.  For both users' and
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authors' sake, the GPL requires that modified versions be marked as
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changed, so that their problems will not be attributed erroneously to
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authors of previous versions.
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  Some devices are designed to deny users access to install or run
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modified versions of the software inside them, although the manufacturer
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can do so.  This is fundamentally incompatible with the aim of
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protecting users' freedom to change the software.  The systematic
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pattern of such abuse occurs in the area of products for individuals to
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use, which is precisely where it is most unacceptable.  Therefore, we
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have designed this version of the GPL to prohibit the practice for those
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products.  If such problems arise substantially in other domains, we
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stand ready to extend this provision to those domains in future versions
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of the GPL, as needed to protect the freedom of users.
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  Finally, every program is threatened constantly by software patents.
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States should not allow patents to restrict development and use of
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software on general-purpose computers, but in those that do, we wish to
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avoid the special danger that patents applied to a free program could
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make it effectively proprietary.  To prevent this, the GPL assures that
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patents cannot be used to render the program non-free.
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  The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
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modification follow.
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                       TERMS AND CONDITIONS
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  0. Definitions.
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  "This License" refers to version 3 of the GNU General Public License.
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  "Copyright" also means copyright-like laws that apply to other kinds of
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works, such as semiconductor masks.
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  "The Program" refers to any copyrightable work licensed under this
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License.  Each licensee is addressed as "you".  "Licensees" and
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"recipients" may be individuals or organizations.
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  To "modify" a work means to copy from or adapt all or part of the work
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in a fashion requiring copyright permission, other than the making of an
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exact copy.  The resulting work is called a "modified version" of the
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earlier work or a work "based on" the earlier work.
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  A "covered work" means either the unmodified Program or a work based
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on the Program.
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  To "propagate" a work means to do anything with it that, without
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permission, would make you directly or secondarily liable for
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infringement under applicable copyright law, except executing it on a
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computer or modifying a private copy.  Propagation includes copying,
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distribution (with or without modification), making available to the
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public, and in some countries other activities as well.
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  To "convey" a work means any kind of propagation that enables other
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parties to make or receive copies.  Mere interaction with a user through
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  An interactive user interface displays "Appropriate Legal Notices"
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  1. Source Code.
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  The "source code" for a work means the preferred form of the work
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  A "Standard Interface" means an interface that either is an official
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interfaces specified for a particular programming language, one that
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is widely used among developers working in that language.
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  The "System Libraries" of an executable work include anything, other
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  The Corresponding Source need not include anything that users
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can regenerate automatically from other parts of the Corresponding
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  The Corresponding Source for a work in source code form is that
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same work.
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  2. Basic Permissions.
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  All rights granted under this License are granted for the term of
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copyright on the Program, and are irrevocable provided the stated
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conditions are met.  This License explicitly affirms your unlimited
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permission to run the unmodified Program.  The output from running a
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covered work is covered by this License only if the output, given its
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rights of fair use or other equivalent, as provided by copyright law.
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convey, without conditions so long as your license otherwise remains
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in force.  You may convey covered works to others for the sole purpose
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of having them make modifications exclusively for you, or provide you
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with facilities for running those works, provided that you comply with
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the terms of this License in conveying all material for which you do
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not control copyright.  Those thus making or running the covered works
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for you must do so exclusively on your behalf, under your direction
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  Conveying under any other circumstances is permitted solely under
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the conditions stated below.  Sublicensing is not allowed; section 10
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  3. Protecting Users' Legal Rights From Anti-Circumvention Law.
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  No covered work shall be deemed part of an effective technological
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measure under any applicable law fulfilling obligations under article
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11 of the WIPO copyright treaty adopted on 20 December 1996, or
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similar laws prohibiting or restricting circumvention of such
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  When you convey a covered work, you waive any legal power to forbid
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circumvention of technological measures to the extent such circumvention
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is effected by exercising rights under this License with respect to
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the covered work, and you disclaim any intention to limit operation or
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modification of the work as a means of enforcing, against the work's
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users, your or third parties' legal rights to forbid circumvention of
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technological measures.
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  4. Conveying Verbatim Copies.
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  You may convey verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you
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receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and
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appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice;
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keep intact all notices stating that this License and any
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non-permissive terms added in accord with section 7 apply to the code;
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keep intact all notices of the absence of any warranty; and give all
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recipients a copy of this License along with the Program.
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  You may charge any price or no price for each copy that you convey,
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and you may offer support or warranty protection for a fee.
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  5. Conveying Modified Source Versions.
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  You may convey a work based on the Program, or the modifications to
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produce it from the Program, in the form of source code under the
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terms of section 4, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
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    a) The work must carry prominent notices stating that you modified
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    it, and giving a relevant date.
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    b) The work must carry prominent notices stating that it is
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    released under this License and any conditions added under section
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    7.  This requirement modifies the requirement in section 4 to
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    c) You must license the entire work, as a whole, under this
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    License to anyone who comes into possession of a copy.  This
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    License will therefore apply, along with any applicable section 7
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    regardless of how they are packaged.  This License gives no
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    permission to license the work in any other way, but it does not
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    invalidate such permission if you have separately received it.
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    d) If the work has interactive user interfaces, each must display
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  A compilation of a covered work with other separate and independent
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works, which are not by their nature extensions of the covered work,
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and which are not combined with it such as to form a larger program,
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in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an
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"aggregate" if the compilation and its resulting copyright are not
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used to limit the access or legal rights of the compilation's users
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beyond what the individual works permit.  Inclusion of a covered work
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in an aggregate does not cause this License to apply to the other
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parts of the aggregate.
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  6. Conveying Non-Source Forms.
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  You may convey a covered work in object code form under the terms
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of sections 4 and 5, provided that you also convey the
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machine-readable Corresponding Source under the terms of this License,
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in one of these ways:
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    a) Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product
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    customarily used for software interchange.
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    b) Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product
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    (including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by a
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    more than your reasonable cost of physically performing this
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    conveying of source, or (2) access to copy the
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    Corresponding Source from a network server at no charge.
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    c) Convey individual copies of the object code with a copy of the
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    alternative is allowed only occasionally and noncommercially, and
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    only if you received the object code with such an offer, in accord
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    d) Convey the object code by offering access from a designated
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    place (gratis or for a charge), and offer equivalent access to the
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    may be on a different server (operated by you or a third party)
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  A separable portion of the object code, whose source code is excluded
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from the Corresponding Source as a System Library, need not be
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included in conveying the object code work.
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  A "User Product" is either (1) a "consumer product", which means any
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tangible personal property which is normally used for personal, family,
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  Corresponding Source conveyed, and Installation Information provided,
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in accord with this section must be in a format that is publicly
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  "Additional permissions" are terms that supplement the terms of this
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License by making exceptions from one or more of its conditions.
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Additional permissions that are applicable to the entire Program shall
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be treated as though they were included in this License, to the extent
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that they are valid under applicable law.  If additional permissions
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apply only to part of the Program, that part may be used separately
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under those permissions, but the entire Program remains governed by
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this License without regard to the additional permissions.
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a further restriction but permits relicensing or conveying under this
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reinstated, you do not qualify to receive new licenses for the same
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material under section 10.
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  9. Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies.
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  You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or
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run a copy of the Program.  Ancillary propagation of a covered work
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occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer transmission
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to receive a copy likewise does not require acceptance.  However,
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nothing other than this License grants you permission to propagate or
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modify any covered work.  These actions infringe copyright if you do
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  10. Automatic Licensing of Downstream Recipients.
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  Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically
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receives a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and
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paul@27 453
  An "entity transaction" is a transaction transferring control of an
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organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an
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organization, or merging organizations.  If propagation of a covered
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give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to possession of the
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Corresponding Source of the work from the predecessor in interest, if
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the predecessor has it or can get it with reasonable efforts.
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  You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the
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rights granted or affirmed under this License.  For example, you may
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not impose a license fee, royalty, or other charge for exercise of
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(including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that
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any patent claim is infringed by making, using, selling, offering for
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sale, or importing the Program or any portion of it.
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  11. Patents.
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paul@27 473
  A "contributor" is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this
paul@27 474
License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based.  The
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work thus licensed is called the contributor's "contributor version".
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  A contributor's "essential patent claims" are all patent claims
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owned or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or
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hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner, permitted
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but do not include claims that would be infringed only as a
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  Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free
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propagate the contents of its contributor version.
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paul@27 492
  In the following three paragraphs, a "patent license" is any express
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agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to enforce a patent
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sue for patent infringement).  To "grant" such a patent license to a
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  If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license,
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and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone
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to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this License, through a
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then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so
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available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the benefit of the
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patent license for this particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner
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consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent
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license to downstream recipients.  "Knowingly relying" means you have
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actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the
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covered work in a country, or your recipient's use of the covered work
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in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that
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paul@27 513
  If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or
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receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify
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work and works based on it.
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  A patent license is "discriminatory" if it does not include within
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the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is
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conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are
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in the business of distributing software, under which you make payment
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to the third party based on the extent of your activity of conveying
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the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the
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parties who would receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory
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patent license (a) in connection with copies of the covered work
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conveyed by you (or copies made from those copies), or (b) primarily
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for and in connection with specific products or compilations that
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contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement,
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or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007.
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  Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting
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any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may
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  12. No Surrender of Others' Freedom.
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  If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
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otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
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excuse you from the conditions of this License.  If you cannot convey a
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covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
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License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may
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not convey it at all.  For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you
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the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those terms and this
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License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program.
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  13. Use with the GNU Affero General Public License.
paul@27 553
paul@27 554
  Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have
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permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed
paul@27 556
under version 3 of the GNU Affero General Public License into a single
paul@27 557
combined work, and to convey the resulting work.  The terms of this
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License will continue to apply to the part which is the covered work,
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but the special requirements of the GNU Affero General Public License,
paul@27 560
section 13, concerning interaction through a network will apply to the
paul@27 561
combination as such.
paul@27 562
paul@27 563
  14. Revised Versions of this License.
paul@27 564
paul@27 565
  The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of
paul@27 566
the GNU General Public License from time to time.  Such new versions will
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be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
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address new problems or concerns.
paul@27 569
paul@27 570
  Each version is given a distinguishing version number.  If the
paul@27 571
Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU General
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Public License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the
paul@27 573
option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered
paul@27 574
version or of any later version published by the Free Software
paul@27 575
Foundation.  If the Program does not specify a version number of the
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paul@27 577
by the Free Software Foundation.
paul@27 578
paul@27 579
  If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future
paul@27 580
versions of the GNU General Public License can be used, that proxy's
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public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you
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to choose that version for the Program.
paul@27 583
paul@27 584
  Later license versions may give you additional or different
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permissions.  However, no additional obligations are imposed on any
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author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a
paul@27 587
later version.
paul@27 588
paul@27 589
  15. Disclaimer of Warranty.
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paul@27 591
paul@27 592
paul@27 593
paul@27 594
paul@27 595
paul@27 596
paul@27 597
paul@27 598
paul@27 599
paul@27 600
  16. Limitation of Liability.
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paul@27 602
paul@27 603
paul@27 604
paul@27 605
paul@27 606
paul@27 607
paul@27 608
paul@27 609
paul@27 610
paul@27 611
paul@27 612
  17. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.
paul@27 613
paul@27 614
  If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided
paul@27 615
above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms,
paul@27 616
reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates
paul@27 617
an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the
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Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a
paul@27 619
copy of the Program in return for a fee.
paul@27 620
paul@27 621
                     END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
paul@27 622
paul@27 623
            How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
paul@27 624
paul@27 625
  If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
paul@27 626
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
paul@27 627
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
paul@27 628
paul@27 629
  To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is safest
paul@27 630
to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
paul@27 631
state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
paul@27 632
the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
paul@27 633
paul@27 634
    <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
paul@27 635
    Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author>
paul@27 636
paul@27 637
    This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
paul@27 638
    it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
paul@27 639
    the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
paul@27 640
    (at your option) any later version.
paul@27 641
paul@27 642
    This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
paul@27 643
    but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
paul@27 644
paul@27 645
    GNU General Public License for more details.
paul@27 646
paul@27 647
    You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
paul@27 648
    along with this program.  If not, see <>.
paul@27 649
paul@27 650
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
paul@27 651
paul@27 652
  If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short
paul@27 653
notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:
paul@27 654
paul@27 655
    <program>  Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author>
paul@27 656
    This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
paul@27 657
    This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
paul@27 658
    under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
paul@27 659
paul@27 660
The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
paul@27 661
parts of the General Public License.  Of course, your program's commands
paul@27 662
might be different; for a GUI interface, you would use an "about box".
paul@27 663
paul@27 664
  You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school,
paul@27 665
if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary.
paul@27 666
For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU GPL, see
paul@27 667
paul@27 668
paul@27 669
  The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your program
paul@27 670
into proprietary programs.  If your program is a subroutine library, you
paul@27 671
may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with
paul@27 672
the library.  If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General
paul@27 673
Public License instead of this License.  But first, please read
paul@27 674